What is RFID and How does it work?

RFID, What is RFID, How does RFID work, When was RFID introduced, Who introduced RFID, Types of RFID system,Types of RFID Tags, Where can RFID technology be used

Perhaps there will be many of you who know what is RFID? By the way, the technology of RFID is not a very new technology. Just because of its more applications now, it has come to everyone’s attention. Such as computer networking technology, which was invented in the decade of 60’s or 70s but there widespread adoption happened only with the advent of internet. Similarly, the use of RFID technology became more popular with the advent of IOT (Internet of Things).

After this, we know that how people have started using RFID in every part of our life in the present time. Looking at the popularity of RFID, today I thought our readers should be provided with complete information about what is RFID? What is the technology used in it? and How RFID works? So that they too can use any RFID devices.

Before using it, know about the way it works. If you really want to understand this technology, then you must read the whole article because many of you may get to learn something new. Then without delay let’s start and know What is Radio Frequency Identification?

What is RFID?

The full form of RFID is Radio Frequency Identification. This acronym refers to small electronic devices that are made of a small chip and antenna. This chip is typically capable of carrying data of 2,000 bytes. This RFID device also works in the same way as barcode or a magnetic strip that is attached to the back of a credit card or ATM card. It provides a unique identifier for that object. Just as a barcode or magnetic strip is scanned to retrieve information, an RFID device is also scanned to retrieve identification information.


When and Who first introduced RFID technology?

This technology was first used on January 23, 1973 by Mario W. Cardullo. There is also a patent in which he invented rewritable memory in an active RFID tag. In the same year Charles Walton, who was an entrepreneur from California received a patent in which he used a passive transported to unlock the door without key.

Types of RFID System

1. Low Frequency
2. High Frequency
3. Ultra-High Frequency
4. Microwave RFID

1. Low Frequency

Low frequency RFID system have a range from 30 KHz to 500 KHz, while its typical frequency is 125 KHz. Low frequency RFID has short transmission ranges, which can generally range from a few inches to six feet.

2. High Frequency

High frequency RFID system have a range of 3 MHz to 30 MHz while its typical HF frequency is 13.56 MHz and its standard range is from a few inches to several feet.

3. Ultra-High Frequency

Ultra-High Frequency RFID system have a range from 300 MHz to 960 MHz, with a typical frequency of 433 MHz and standard range from 10 feet to 25 + feet.

4. Microwave RFID

Microwave RFID systems run at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and can be read from a distance of 30 + feet.

How does RFID works?

Before understanding the technology of RFID, we have to understand that what are its different parts and what are their functions. There are mainly three parts of a Radio Frequency- Identification system:

1. A scanning antenna
2. A trans receiver, while there is also a decoder with it. By which the data is interpreted.
3. A transponder RFID tag which is programmed with some information.

In this, the scanning antenna spreads radio-frequency signals in a relatively short range. This RF radiation does two types of work:

1. It provides a medium to communicate with the transponder  (RFID tag)
2. It provides energy to the RFID tag to communicate. (Especially in passive RFID tags).

This is the key part of this technology, RFID tax do not require any batteries, and hence they can be used for many years. In this the scanning antennas are permanently a fixed to a surface, along with this, handheld antennas are also available for use. They can take any shape or size according to your need.

For example, you can also make them within a door frame so that they can accepted data from all persons who pass through that door. When an RFID tag passes through the field of the scanning antenna, then it detects the activation signal from that antenna. Which wakes up the RFID chip, and it starts transmitting information from its microchip and which is picked up by the scanning antenna.

Types of RFID Tags

1. Active RFID Tags
2. Passive RFID Tags

1. Active RFID Tags

These tags have their own power source; The big advantage of this is that even if the reader is far away in these tags, it can still receive the signals. The life of these devices is up to 10 years.

2. Passive RFID Tags

No batteries are required in these tags, and they are also very small in size. If we talk about their age then they are of virtually unlimited life span. RFID tags can be read in a variety of circumstances where barcodes and other optically read technologies are useless.

(a) In this, there is no compulsion for the tag to be on the surface of an object, due to which it does not spoil too quickly.(b) Its read time is typically less than 100 milliseconds.
(c) In this, a large number of tags can be read simultaneously, not item by item. This is how RFID technology works.

Where can RFID technology be used?

RFID technology is used only in their RFID tags. These tags come in many varieties whose shapes and sizes are very different, together they are encashed in many variety of materials:

1. Animal tracking tags, which are inserted inside their skin, to track their movements. They are about the size of a grain of rice.

2. Some tags are also of screw-shape, which are used to track trees and other wooden objects.

3. Credit-card shape RFID tags are used in access applications.

4. These tags are kept in many merchandise stores in the shape of anti-theft hard plastic tags.

5. Heavy-duty 120 by 100 by 50 mm rectangular transponders are used to track shipping containers, heavy machinery, trucks, and railroad cars.

6. RFID devices are used in dogs to identify them.

7. Also, to prevent many costly musical instruments from being stolen, RFID tags are cleverly installed in them, so that the thief does not even realize that the item stolen by him can also be tracked. 


1. What is the full form of RFID?
Ans. The full form of RFID is Radio-Frequency Identification.

2. Who first introduced RFID technology.
Ans. Mario W. Cardullo.

3. When was first RFID technology was introduced?
Ans. January 23, 1973.

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